Archive for the ‘Christianity’ Category


Marry those among you who are single, or the virtuous ones among yourselves, male or female: if they are in poverty, Allah will give them means out of His grace: for Allah encompasseth all, and he knoweth all things. (24:32)

Muslims do believe that Isa (A.S.) was sent down as a Prophet of Allah (God), but he (Jesus) is not God or Lord, nor the son of God.


Muslims do not believe that Isa (A.S.), also known as Jesus by Christians and others, is dead or was ever crucified. We believe that he was raised to heaven and is there, and will descend at the appointed time, end all wars, and bring peace to the world.  Like Jesus (A.S.), Muhammad (Peace be upon him) is also a Prophet and Messenger. Muhammed (P.B.U.H.) is the last Prophet, though, and there is none after him.  Hence, Islam is the last religion, complete, with the Holy Quran as the unchanged and perfect word of God for over 1400 years, as God promised to preserve it till the last day for all of humankind, unlike sacred texts of other religions which have multiples versions and are “revised” periodically.  God, or Allah in Arabic, is Divine and Supreme Being and Creator.

What the Holy Quran says about Jesus:

They slew him not, nor did they crucify him but it was made dubious to them.

(Holy Quran, Surah Nisaa, Verse 157)

Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) himself told of the coming of Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him). In the Bible, Jesus (A.S.) says,

If you love me, keep my commandments. And I will pray to the Father and He shall give you another comforter that he may abide with you forever.

(Bible, John 14-15/16)

But when the comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the spirit of Truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me, and he also shall bear witness, because ye have been with me from the beginning.

(Bible, John 15-26/27)

I have yet many things to say unto you, but you cannot bear them now. How be it when he, the spirit of Truth will come, he will guide you into all truth, for he shall speak not of himself, but whatsoever he shall hear, that he shall speak, and he will show you things to come. He shall glorify me, for he shall receive of mine, and he shall show it unto you.

(Bible, John 16-12/14)

Ulema (learned scholars in Islam) have said that the person who is described by Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) to come after him – in the above verse – does not comply with any other person but Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him).

In this case, the “comforter” he mentions is none other than Prophet Muhammad (Peace be upon him) and his laws and way of life (Shariah) and Book (Holy Quran) are those that Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) asks his followers to abide by.

The “person” whom Jesus (A.S.) prophecised will come after him, is called Pargaleeta in the Bible . This word was deleted by interpreters and translators and changed at times to “Spirit of Truth” and at other times, to “comforter” and sometimes “Holy Spirit.” The original Greek and its meaning is “one whom people praise exceedingly.” The sense of the word, then, is applicable to the word Muhammad in Arabic, since Muhammad means “the praised one.”

Jesus (A.S.) also says in the Bible,

…and a little while and you shall not see me; and again a little while, you shall see me because I go to the Father.

(Bible, John 16:16)

… And the Holy Quran says,

And surely they slew him not. But Allah (God) raised him unto Himself.

(Holy Quran, Surah Nisaa, Verse 157-158)

As such, Muslims believe that Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) was raised to heaven. According to Hadith, he is on the second heaven. Rasulullah (Sallallaahu Alayhi Wasallam=Peace be upon him) mentioned, “During the Meraj (Ascension), I met Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) on the second heaven. I found him of medium stature, reddish white. performed ghusal (ablution, cleansing of the entire body) and come.” InHis body was so clean and clear, that it appeared as though he had just another Hadith, Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) mentioned to the Jews that, “Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) is not dead, he will most surely return to you before Qiyamat (the Day of Judgement).”

Source

He will resemble the famous Sahabi (A.S.) Hadhrat Urwa bin Masoodi (R.A.). He will be of average height and red and white in colour. His hair spread to the shoulders, straight, neat and shining as after a bath. On bending his head, it will seem as if pearls are falling. He will have armour on his body. He will be wearing two pieces of cloth light yellow in color.

His Descension

He will descend on a Jamaat (group) that will be righteous at the time and comprising of 800 men and 400 women. The people will be preparing for war at the time against Dajjal (the anti-Christ). It will be time for Fajr prayers, and Imam Mahdi will be the Amir (leader). From the darkness of the dawn, a sound will suddenly be heard that “one who listens to your pleas has come” — the righteous people will look everywhere and their eyes will fall on Isa (A.S.). Briefly, at the time of Fajr, Isa (A.S.) will descend.
When descending, Isa (A.S.)’s hands will be on the shoulders of two angels (according to another source (Kab Abrar), a cloud will carry him).

On their insistence Hadhrat Isa will introduce himself. He will inquire about their enthusiasm and thoughts on Jihad against Dajjal. Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will descend on the eastern side near the Minaret in Damascus (or in Baitul-Muqaddus by Imam Mahdi). At the time Imam Mahdi will have proceeded forward to lead the Fajr Salaat. The Iqamat of the Salaat would have been said (already recited) and Imam Mahdi will call Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) for Imamat (to lead the prayer), but he (Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)) will instead tell Imam Mahdi to lead the prayer since the Iqamat of that Salaat has already been said for him. Thus Imam Mahdi will lead the prayer, and Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will follow him. After the ruku, he will make this statement: “Allah has killed Dajjal and the Muslims have appeared.”

The Killing of Dajjal (anti-Christ) and the Victory of the Muslims

After the completion of Fajr Salaat (congregational dawn prayers), Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will open the door behind him where Dajjal accompanied by 70,000 Yahudis (Jews) will be. He will indicate with his hand to move away between him (Hadhrat Isa (A.S.)) and Dajjal. Dajjal will then see Hadhrat Isa (A.S.). At that time every Kafir on whom the breath of Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will reach, will die. His breath will reach up to the distance of his eyesight. The Muslims will then come down from the mountains and break loose on the army of Dajjal. There will be war, Dajjal will retreat, and Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will pursue Dajjal. Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will have two flexible swords and one shield with him and with these he will kill Dajjal at the Gate of Hudd. He will show the Muslims the blood of Dajjal which will get on his shield. Eventually the Yahudis will be selected and killed. The swine will be killed and the cross broken. People will revert to Islam. Wars will end, and people will return to their respective countries. One Jamaat (group) of Muslims will remain in his service and companionship.

Hadhrat Isa (A.S.) will go to Fajr Rawha and perform Haj or Umrah (or both) from there. He will also go to the grave of Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) and present his greetings and Rasulullah (Sallallahu Alayhi Wasallam) will reply. People will live comfortable lives. The wall of Yajooj and Majooj (Gog and Magog) will then break.

Source

Those who listen to the word and follow the best of it; those are the ones whom God has guided, and those are the ones endowed with understanding (Qur’an 39:18)

THE FASTEST GROWING RELIGION IN THE WORLD

This is a collection of short quotations from a wide variety of Non-Muslim notables, including academics, writers, philosophers, poets, politicians, and activists belonging to the East and the West.  To our knowledge none of them ever became Muslim.  These words, therefore, reflect their personal views on various aspects of the religion of Islam.

Sarojini Naidu

(1879-1949) A writer, poetess and one of the most visible leaders of pre-Independent India. President of the Indian National Congress and the first woman governor of free India.

“Sense of justice is one of the most wonderful ideals of Islam, because as I read in the Qur’an I find those dynamic principles of life, not mystic but practical ethics for the daily conduct of life suited to the whole world.”

“It was the first religion that preached and practiced democracy for, in the mosque when the call for prayer is sounded and worshippers are gathered together, the democracy of Islam is embodied five times a day when the peasant and king kneel side by side and proclaim: “God Alone is Great.” I have been struck over and over again by this indivisible unity of Islam that makes man instinctively a brother.”

[Lectures on  “The  Ideals  of  Islam;”  see Speeches And Writings Of Sarojini Naidu, Madras, 1918, pp. 167-9]

Arnold J. Toynbee

(1889-1975) British historian, Lecturer at Oxford University.

“The extinction of race consciousness as between Muslims is one of the outstanding achievements of Islam, and in the contemporary world there is, as it happens, a crying need for the propagation of this Islamic virtue.”

[Civilization On Trial, New York, 1948, p. 205]

William Montgomery Watt

(1909) Professor (Emeritus) of Arabic and Islamic Studies at the University of Edinburgh.

“I am not a Muslim in the usual sense, though I hope I am a “Muslim” as “one surrendered to God,” but I believe that embedded in the Qur’an and other expressions of the Islamic vision are vast stores of divine truth from which I and other occidentals have still much to learn, and Islam is certainly a strong contender for the supplying of the basic framework of the one religion of the  future.'”


[Islam And Christianity Today, London, 1983, p. ix]

Bertrand Russell

(1872-1970) British philosopher, mathematician, and Nobel laureate, whose emphasis on logical analysis greatly influenced the course of 20th-century philosophy.

“Our use of the phrase ‘the Dark Ages’ to cover the period from 699 to 1,000 marks our undue concentration on Western Europe… From India to Spain, the brilliant civilization of Islam flourished. What was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilization, but quite the contrary… To us it seems that West-European civilization is civilization; but this is a narrow view.”

[History of Western Philosophy, London, 1948, p. 419]

Hamilton Alexander Roskeen Gibb

(1895-1971) A leading orientalist scholar of his time

“But Islam has a still further service to render to the cause of humanity. It stands after all nearer to the real East than Europe does, and it possesses a magnificent tradition of inter-racial understanding and cooperation. No other society has such a record of success uniting in an equality of status, of opportunity, and of endeavours so many and so various races of mankind … Islam has still the power to reconcile apparently irreconcilable elements of race and tradition. If ever the opposition of the great societies of East and West is to be replaced by cooperation, the mediation of Islam is an indispensable condition. In its hands lies very largely the solution of the problem with which Europe is faced in its relation with East.”

[Whither Islam, London, 1932, p. 379.]

“That his (Muhammad’s) reforms enhanced the status of women in general is universally admitted.”

[Mohammedanism, London, 1953, p. 33]

James A. Michener

(1907-1997) Leading American writer; recipient of honorary doctorates in five fields from thirty leading universities and decorated with the Presidential Medal of freedom, America’s highest civilian award.

“No other religion in history spread so rapidly as Islam . . . The West has widely  believed that this surge of religion was made possible by the sword. But no modern scholar accepts that idea, and the Qur’an is explicit in support of the freedom of conscience.”

[Islam – The Misunderstood Religion, Readers’ Digest (American Edition) May 1955]

Edward Gibbon

(1737-1794) Considered the greatest British historian of his time.

“‘I believe in One God and Mohammed the Apostle of God,’ is the simple and invariable profession of Islam. The intellectual image of the Deity has never been degraded by any visible idol; the honours of the prophet have never transgressed the measure of human virtue, and his living precepts have restrained the gratitude of his disciples within the bounds of reason and religion.”

[History Of The Saracen Empire, London, 1870, p. 54]

“More pure than the system of Zoroaster, more liberal than the law of Moses, the religion of Mohammad might seem less inconsistent with reason than the creed of mystery and superstition which, in the seventh century, disgraced the simplicity of the gospels.”

[The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, vol. 5. p. 487]

Jared Diamond

Professor of Physiology at the UCLA School of Medicine; recipient of the Pulitzer Prize for General Non-Fiction in 1998.

“Medieval Islam was technologically advanced and open to innovation. It achieved far higher literacy rates than in contemporary Europe; it assimilated the legacy of classical Greek civilization to such a degree that many classical books are now known to us only through Arabic copies.  It invented windmills, trigonometry, lateen sails and made major advances in metallurgy, mechanical and chemical engineering and irrigation methods. In the middle-ages the flow of technology was overwhelmingly from Islam to Europe rather from Europe to Islam. Only after the 1500’s did the net direction of flow begin to reverse.”

[Guns, Germs, and Steel – The Fates of Human Societies, 1997, p. 253]

Annie Besant

(1847-1933) British theosophist and nationalist leader in India. President of the Indian National Congress in 1917.

“I often think that woman is more free in Islam than in Christianity. Woman is more protected by Islam than by the faith which preaches Monogamy. In Al-Quran the law about woman is more just and liberal. It is only in the last twenty years that Christian England, has recognized the right of woman to property, while Islam has allowed this right from all times.”

[The Life and Teachings of Muhammad, Madras, 1932, pp. 25, 26]

Source

Intellectual Challenge to the Christian Beliefs (5)

It is not meet for a man that Allah should give him the Book and the Judgment and Prophethood, then he should say to men: “Be my servants rather than Allah’s;” but rather (he would say): “Be worshippers of the Lord because of your teaching the Book and your reading (it yourselves)”. Or that he should enjoin you that you should take the angels and the prophets for lords; what! would he enjoin you with unbelief after you are Muslims (Submitting Ones)? (Qur’an, 3:79-80)

Coming to the belief of trinity, the Qur’an refutes it in two ways:

First: The general method, i.e. showing that it is impossible for Allah to take a son for Himself, no matter whether the presumed son be ‘Isa (a.s.) or someone else.

Second: The particular method, i.e. describing that ‘Isa (a.s.) son of Maryam was neither a son of God nor God; that he was but a servant created by Allah.

First Method: What is the quiddity of sonship and birth? What do these words really mean? A living material thing (like man, animal or vegetable) separates from itself a portion of its own matter, then gradually develops it until it becomes another individual of the same species similar to its parent; the offspring has the same characteristics and traits as the parent body had. An animal separates semen from its body, or a plant removes a seed from from itself, then it preserves and grows the semen or seed gradually until it becomes another animal or plant similar to its parent. This is what sonship and birth mean. It is no secret that such a thing is impossible for Allah:

First: Because it needs a physical material body; and Allah is far above matter and its concomitants without which matter cannot exist like motion, time, space and other such things.

Second: To Allah belongs absolute Divinity and Lordship; consequently, He has absolute authority over, and total management of, all things in His hand. Every thing is in need of Him to bring it into existence, and depends on Him for its continuity. It is just impossible to imagine a thing similar to Allah in “species” – a thing having the identity, attributes and characteristics similar to those of Allah and independent of Him.

Third: If Allah could beget or give birth to a son, it would entail graduality of action for Allah. In other words, He would be governed by the laws of matter and movement; and it is contradiction in term, because whatever takes place by His Will comes into being at once without delay, without graduality.

The above explanations are inferred from the words of Allah: And they say: ”Allah has taken to Himself a son.” Glory be to Him; rather, whatever is in the heavens and the earth is HIs; all are obedient to Him. The Originator of the heavens and the earth; and when He decrees an affair, He only says to it, “Be”, and it is (2:116-117).

As we have explained above, the words, Glory be to Him, are a complete proof; the clause, whatever is in the heavens and the earth is His; all are obedient to Him, is another proof; and the verse, The Originator of the heavens and the earth; and when He decrees an affair, He only says to it “Be”, and it is, is a third proof.

It is also possible to take the clause, The Originator of the heavens and the earth, as a allegorical expression in which the attribute of the object has been transferred to the subject. In other words, the clause may denote that the heavens and the earth are original in their creation and design; Allah has created them without any previous model. Therefore, He cannot beget anyone, otherwise it would be a creation on His own model. (After all the Christians believe that the Son is one with the Father). In that case this clause would be an independent proof by itself.

The Christians generally use the sentence, ‘the Messiah is the Son of God’, in a somewhat allegorical sense, and not in its literal meaning. They expand the meaning of sonship. Probably, it means separation of a thing from another of similar quiddity without physical and material division and without graduality. This interpretation may remove the problems of body, materiality and graduality. Yet, the problem of similarity will remain unsolved.

The problem of similarity may be described thus: Evidently, to believe in God the Father and God the Son is to believe in number, in real plurality, even if we suppose that the Father and the Son are one in “species” or quiddity, both belong to the homosapien species; but they are in fact more than one because they are two individual human beings. Now, if we suppose that God is one, then all other things (including the Son) would be “no-God”; they would be owned by God and dependent on Him; consequently the putative son would not be a God like Him. On the other hand, if we suppose a son similar to God, free of, not dependent on, Him, then it would invalidate and negate the Oneness of God.

This exposition is found in the following words of Allah: and say not, “Three”. Desist, it is better for you; Allah is only one God; far be it from His glory that He should have a son; whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth is His; and Allah is sufficient for a Protector (4:171).

Second Method: ‘Isa (a.s.) son of Maryam could not be a son of God sharing Godhead with Him, because he was a human being having all the concomitants of humanity.

The Messiah (a.s.) was conceived by Maryam and grew up in her womb; then she brought him forth as women give birth to their children, and brought him up, as a child is brought up by his mother. He grew up proceeding through normal stages: from infancy to childhood, from youth to middle age. All this time, his condition was like any other normal human being in march of life. He was governed by all normal accidents and conditions undergone by other men. He was hungry and satiated; felt joy and sorrow; was pleased and displeased; affected by delight and pain, comfort and discomfort; he ate and drank, slept and woke up, was tired and rested etc.

This was the condition of ‘Isa (a.s.) when he was among the people. Doubtlessly a person having such characteristics is just like a mortal man like any other member of his species. As such he, like all other human beings, was a creature made by Allah.

Now, let us look at the miracles and supernatural things that happened on his hand, like giving life to dead bodies, creating the birds and healing the blind and leper. Also, there are extraordinary signs related to his birth, that is, his conception without father. All these things are supernatural, against the normal custom which people are familiar with; yet they are unfamiliar because of their rarity, not because they are impossible. There was Adam who by evidence of the heavenly Books was created from dust and had no father. And here are the prophets, for example: Salih, Ibrahim and Musa (peace be upon them) on whose hand so many miraculous signs had appeared (which are mentioned in revealed scriptures). But nobody thinks that those miracles negated their humanity or proved their divinity.

This method has been used in the verses: Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah is the third (Person) of the three”; and there is no god but One God,…. The Messiah, son of Maryam is but an apostle; apostles before him have indeed passed away; and his mother was a truthful woman, they both used to eat food. See how We make the signs clear to them, then behold how they are turned away (5:73 – 75).

Eating food has been specially selected for mention in preference to other activities, because it rather more forcefully proves his materiality and shows his neediness and wants, which cannot be combined with Godhead. Obviously a person who by his nature feels hunger and thirst and satisfies it with a morsel of food and a cup of water, is nothing but an embodiment of poverty and need – a need that cannot be removed without help of some extraneous agent. How can such a man be God? What is the meaning of such divinity? A man surrounded by needs, depending for their fulfillment on something outside his own being, is deficient in himself, and managed by some other than himself. He cannot be self-sufficient god; rather he shall be a creature who is looked after by the Lord – the Lord Who has His creatures’ affairs in His Own Hand. The verse 5:17 may possibly be explained in this light: Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah – He is the Messiah, son of Maryam”. Say: “Who then could control any thing as against Allah when He wished to destroy the Messiah, son of Maryam and his mother and all those on the earth?” And Allah’s is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth and what is between them; He creates what He pleases; and Allah has power over all things.

The same is the case with the verse (coming after 5:75 quoted above) addressing the Christians: Say: “Do you worship besides Allah that which does not control for you any harm, or any profit?” And Allah – He is the Hearing, the Knowing (5:76).


(more…)

This section groups all the discourses appearing in Al-Mizan that provides an intellectual challenge to the Christian doctrines. The aim is not to attack these beliefs but to invite the Christians and other readers in kind exhortation to understand each other better.

Intellectual Challenge to the Christian Beliefs (3)

It is not meet for a man that Allah should give him the Book and the Judgment and Prophethood, then he should say to men: “Be my servants rather than Allah’s;” but rather (he would say): “Be worshippers of the Lord because of your teaching the Book and your reading (it yourselves)”. Or that he should enjoin you that you should take the angels and the prophets for lords; what! would he enjoin you with unbelief after you are Muslims (Submitting Ones)? (Qur’an, 3:79-80)

The Qur’an says that ‘Isa (Jesus) was Allah’s servant and messenger; and that he did not claim for himself what the Christians ascribe to him, nor did he tell them anything other than conveying the Divine Message. Allah says:

And when Allah will say: “O ‘Isa (Jesus) son of Mary! Did you say to men, ‘Take me and my mother for two Allahs besides Allah’ “, he will say: “Glory be to Thee, it did not befit me that I should say what I had no right to (say); if I had said it, Thou wouldst indeed have known it; Thou knowest what is in my mind, and I do not know what is in Thy mind; surely Thou art the great Knower of the unseen things. I did not say to them aught save what Thou didst enjoin me with: That worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord, and I was a witness of them so long as I was among them, but when Thou didst take me completely, Thou wert the watcher over them, and Thou art witness of all things. If Thou shouldst chastise them, then surely they are Thy servants; and if Thou shouldst forgive them, then surely Thou art the Mighty, the Wise.” Allah will say: “This is the day when their truth shall benefit the truthful ones” (5:116-119).

This wonderful reply contains the essence of servitude and shows outstanding manner; it is a mirror of ‘Isa (Jesus)’ attitude and behavior towards his Lord; it shows how he looked at himself in relation to his Creator and what he thought of the people and their deeds. He says that he looked himself just as a servant of his Lord, who had nothing to do other than obeying the Lord; he does not proceed except when directed to, and does not stop unless told to. And he was not ordered except to call people to the worship of Allah and he did not tell them except what he was enjoined with: That worship Allah, my Lord and your Lord.

And as far as his relationship with his people is concerned he shall be the witness for their deeds, and that is that; it is none of his business what Allah does with them about them – whether He forgives them or chastises them.

Question: If so, then how would you justify what you had written in the topic of intercession, that ‘Isa (Jesus) shall be among the intercessors on the Day of Resurrection, he shall intercede and his intercession shall be honored and accepted?

Answer: The Qur’an says expressly – or almost expressly – that he is an intercessor. Allah says: And those whom they call upon besides Him have no authority for intercession, but he who bears witness of the truth and they know (43:86); and on the Day of Resurrection he (‘Isa (Jesus)) shall be a witness against them (4:159); and when I taught you the Book and the Wisdom and Torah and the Gospel (5:110).

This intercession is something quite different from the atonement which the Christians believe in. The theory of atonement invalidates the system of reward and punishment, and consequently negates the absolute sovereignty of Allah – as we shall explain later on. It is the idea of atonement which the above mentioned talk of ‘Isa (Jesus) refutes. But this verse has nothing to do with intercession – it neither confirms it nor rejects it. Had it wanted to confirm it – inspite of its inconsistency (because the situation demands self-abasement, not relaxedness) with context – it should have said: If Thou shouldst forgive them, then surely Thou art the Forgiving, the Merciful. And if it wanted to refute it, it should not have mentioned his being a witness for the people.

Looking at what the people have said about ‘Isa (Jesus), we find that they are divided after him into various sects, and disintegrated to perhaps more than seventy denominations. This number looks at fundamental and major divisions only, because minor differences are too numerous to count.

Nevertheless, The Qur’an concerns itself only with what they say about ‘Isa (Jesus) and his mother, because it affects the foundation of monotheism which is the only goal to which the Qur’an calls and the natural straight religion leads. The Book of Allah is not concerned with other relatively minor points, e.g., the problem of alteration of the Book and that of atonement.

The beliefs which the Qur’an ascribes to them (or quotes them) are as follows:

and the Christian say: “The Messiah is the son of Allah” (9:30); And they

say: “The Beneficent Allah has taken to Himself a son” (21:26);

Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah, is the Messiah, son of

Mary” (5:72);

Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah is the third of the three”

(5:73);

and say not, Three (4:171). (4:171).

Apparently, these verses contain different phrases, describe different beliefs. (That is why some people* apply various verses to various sects, for example, the Melkites** who believe in real sonship; the Nestorians*** who explain descendence and sonship as radiance of light on a transparent body like crystal; and the Jacobites**** who explain it in terms of change and transformation, that is, the Allah was transformed into flesh and blood.)

But evidently the Qur’an does not look at the peculiarities of their diverse sects. It is concerned only with one belief which is common between all of them – that ‘Isa (Jesus) is the son of Allah and of one substance with Allah, with the resulting belief of trinity – although they differ very much in its explanation (which has led to extreme conflicts and discords). That this explanation is correct is supported by the fact that the Qur’an brings one and the same argument to refute the views of all of them.

It may be explained as follows:

The present Torah and Gospels all together clearly mention the Oneness of Allah; on the other hand the Gospel clearly mentions the sonship declaring that the Son is the Father and none else.

They do not interpret the postulated sonship in the terms of distinction, honor and excellence, although many verses of the Gospels clearly give this meaning. For example:

“But I say unto you, Love your enemies, bless them that curse you, do good to them that hate you, and pray for them which despitefully use you, and prosecute you. That you may be the children of your Father which is in heaven: for he maketh his sun to rise on the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and the unjust. For if ye love them which love you, what reward have ye? do not even the publicans the same? And if ye salute your brethren only, what do ye more than others? do not even the publicans so? Be ye therefore perfect , even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.” (Matthew, 5:44 – 48)*****

“Let your light so shine before men, that they may see your good works, and glorify your Father which is in heaven.” (Matthew, 5:16)

“Take heed that ye do not your alms before men, to be seen of them: otherwise ye have no reward of your Father which art in heaven.” (Matthew, 6:1)

“After this manner therefore pray ye: Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed by thy name.” (Matthew, 6:9)

“For if ye forgive men their trespasses, your heavenly Father will also forgive you.” (Matthew, 6:14)

“Be ye therefore merciful, as your Father also is merciful.” (Luke, 6:36)

Also, he said to Mary Magdalene: “go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father, and your Father; and to my God and your God.” (John, 20:17)

These and other similar sentences of the Gospels refer to Allah as the Father of ‘Isa (Jesus) as well as others, all in the sense of distinction and honor.

There are some sayings in the Gospels which allude to the union of the Son with the Father. For example:

“These words spake Jesus, and lifted up his eyes to heaven, and said, Father, the hour is come; glorify thy Son, that thy Son also may glorify thee.” (John, 17:1)

Then he went on praying for his disciples and finally said:

“Neither pray I for these alone, but for them also, which shall believe on me through their word. That they all may be one; as thou, Father, art in me, and I in thee, that they also may be one in us; that the world may believe that thou hast sent me. And the glory which thou gavest me I have given them; that they may be one, even as we are one; I in them, and thou in me, that they may be made perfect in one; and that the world may know that thou hast sent me, and hast loved them, as thou hast loved me.” (John, 17:20 – 23)

However, there are other verses which apparently cannot be explained in the terms of distinction and honor. For example:

“Thomas saith unto him (i.e. Jesus), Lord, we know not whither thou goest ; and how can we know the way? Jesus saith unto him, I am the way, the truth and the life; no man cometh unto the Father but by me. If ye had known me, ye should have known my Father also: and from henceforth ye know him, and have seen him. Philip saith unto him, Lord, show us the Father, and it sufficeth us. Jesus saith unto him, Have I been so long time with you, and ye hast thou not known me, Philip? he that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and how sayest thou then, Show us thy Father? Believest thou not that I am in the Father, and the Father in me? the words that I speak unto you I speak not of myself: but the Father that dwelleth in me, he doeth the works. Believe me that I am in the Father, and the Father in me.” (John, 5:11)

“For I proceeded forth and came from God; neither came I of myself, but he sent me.” (John, 8:42)

“I and my Father are one.” (John, 10:30)

“Go ye therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.” (Matthew, 28:19)

“In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. The same was in the beginning with God. All things were made by Him: and without Him was not anything made that was made. In Him was life; and the life was the light of men.” (John, 1:1 – 4)

These and other similar statements of the Gospels have led the Christians to the belief of trinity in unity. The belief of trinity is an attempt to reconcile the belief that the Christ is the Son of God with the belief in one God which the Christ himself had taught. For example, Mark, 12:29 quotes him as saying: “The first of all the commandments is, Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God is one Lord.”

The believers in the trinity say (although it does not impart any intelligible meaning): God is one substance with three Persons. The word person denotes an attribute with which a thing appears to others; and the attribute is none other than the thing itself. The three Persons are: The Person of existence, the Person of knowledge, i.e. the Word, and the Person of life, i.e. the Spirit.

These three Persons are the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. The first is the Person of existence; the second, the Person of knowledge (the Word); and the third, the Person of Life. The Son who is the Word and the Person of Knowledge descended from his Father (i.e. the Person of existence) accompanied by the Holy Ghost (i.e. the Person of Life) that gives light to all things.

Then they differ among themselves in explanation of this vague statement; and ever-occurring conflicts have divided them to more than seventy sects and denominations. We shall mention some of them to the extent that is necessary in the framework of this book.

Think over the above description; then look at what the Qur’an ascribes to the Christians, or quotes them as saying: and the Christians say, “The Messiah is the son of Allah” (9:30); Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah, He is the Messiah, son of Maryam: (5:72): Certainly they disbelieve who say: “Surely Allah is the third (Person) of the three” (5:73); and say not, “three”; Desist (4:171). Then you will realize that all these statements point to a single idea, i.e. the trinity in unity which is the common factor of all the sects which sprang up in the Christianity (as we have said above).

Why did the Qur’an concentrate on this common factor? It was because the same objections apply to all their beliefs regarding ‘Isa (Jesus) – in spite of their diversity and numerousness. The arguments put by the Qur’an are applicable to all their interpretations with equal force, as will be explained later.

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This section groups all the discourses appearing in Al-Mizan that provides an intellectual challenge to the Christian doctrines. The aim is not to attack these beliefs but to invite the Christians and other readers in kind exhortation to understand each other better.

The position of ‘Isa (Jesus) before Allah

It is not meet for a man that Allah should give him the Book and the Judgment and Prophethood, then he should say to men: “Be my servants rather than Allah’s;” but rather (he would say): “Be worshippers of the Lord because of your teaching the Book and your reading (it yourselves)”. Or that he should enjoin you that you should take the angels and the prophets for lords; what! would he enjoin you with unbelief after you are Muslims (Submitting Ones)? (Qur’an, 3:79-80)

‘Isa (Jesus) was a servant of Allah and a prophet (vide 19:30); a messenger to the Children of Israel (vide 3:49); was one of the five most high prophets, bringing a new law and a Book, i.e., Gospel (vide 5:46; 33:7; 42:13); Allah named him the Messiah, ‘Isa (Jesus) (vide 3:45); he was the Word of Allah, and a Spirit from Him (vide 4:171); an Imam (vide 33:7); one of the witnesses of deeds (vide 4:159; 5:117); he brought the good news of the Messenger of Allah (vide 61:6); was worthy of regard in this world and the hereafter, and one of those who are made near to Allah (vide 3:45); was one of the chosen progenies (vide 3:33); one of the selected and righteous ones (vide 6:85-87); was made blessed wherever he might be, and purified; was a sign to the people, a mercy from Allah, and dutiful to his mother; greeted himself with peace (vide 19:19-33); and was among those whom Allah taught the Book and the Wisdom (vide 3:48).

These twenty-two characteristics from the stations of friendship and guardianship of Allah, give the gist of the attributes, which Allah has used to praise this honored prophet and to raise his rank. These may be divided into two categories:

(1) The acquired ones, like servitude, righteousness and nearness to Allah;

(2) Those bestowed by Allah as His special grace.
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